Category: Uncategorized

UHF CB 80 Channel Frequency List

Channel Frequency Duplex Frequency Use Channel Spacing
Channel 1
476.4250
477.1750 Duplex – Repeater Output 12.5 KHz
Channel 2
476.4500
477.2000 Duplex – Repeater Output 12.5 KHz
Channel 3
476.4750
477.2250
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 4
476.5000
477.2500
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 5
476.5250
477.2750
Duplex – Repeater Output (Emergency use only)
12.5 KHz
Channel 6
476.5500
477.3000
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 7
476.5750
477.3250
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 8
476.6000
477.3500
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 9
476.6250
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 10
476.6500
Simplex 4WD Drivers – Convoy, Clubs & National Parks
12.5 KHz
Channel 11
476.6750
Simplex Call Channel
12.5 KHz
Channel 12
476.7000
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 13
476.7250
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 14
476.7500
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 15
476.7750
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 16
476.8000
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 17
476.8250
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 18
476.8500
Simplex Caravan & Campers Convoy Channel
12.5 KHz
Channel 19
476.8750
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 20
476.9000
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 21
476.9250
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 22
476.9500
Data Only (No Voice)
25 KHz
Channel 23
476.9750
Data Only (No Voice)
25 KHz
Channel 24
477.0000
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 25
477.0250
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 26
477.0500
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 27
477.0750
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 28
477.1000
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 29
477.1250
Simplex Pacific Hwy (NSW) & Bruce Hwy (Qld) Road Channel
12.5 KHz
Channel 30
477.1500
Simplex UHF CB Broadcasts
12.5 KHz
Channel 31
477.1750
476.4250
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 32
477.2000
476.4500
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 33
477.2250
476.4750
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 34
477.2500
476.5000
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 35
477.2750
476.5250
Repeater Input (Emergency Use Only)
12.5 KHz
Channel 36
477.3000
476.5500
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 37
477.3250
476.5750
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 38
477.3500
476.6000
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 39
477.3750
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 40
477.4000
Simplex Highway Channel
12.5 KHz
Channel 41
476.4375
477.1875
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 42
476.4625
477.2125
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 43
476.4875
477.2375
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 44
476.5125
477.2625
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 45
476.5375
477.2875
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 46
476.5625
477.3125
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 47
476.5875
477.3375
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 48
476.6125
477.3625
Duplex – Repeater Output
12.5 KHz
Channel 49
476.6375
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 50
476.6625
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 51
476.6875
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 52
476.7125
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 53
476.7375
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 54
476.7625
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 55
476.7875
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 56
476.8125
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 57
476.8375
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 58
476.8625
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 59
476.8875
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 60
476.9125
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 61
Reserved for Future Expansion
Channel 62
Reserved for Future Expansion
Channel 63
Reserved for Future Expansion
Channel 64
477.0125
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 65
477.0375
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 66
477.0625
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 67
477.0875
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 68
477.1125
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 69
477.1375
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 70
477.1625
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 71
477.1875
476.4375
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 72
477.2125
476.4625
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 73
477.2375
476.4875
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 74
477.2625
476.5125
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 75
477.2875
476.5375
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 76
477.3125
476.5625
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 77
477.3375
476.5875
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 78
477.3625
476.6125
Repeater Input
12.5 KHz
Channel 79
477.3875
Simplex
12.5 KHz
Channel 80
477.4125
Simplex
12.5 KHz

NATO phonetic alphabet

The International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, sometimes called the NATO alphabet or spelling alphabet and the ITU radiotelephonic or phonetic alphabet, is the most widely used radiotelephonic spelling alphabet. Although often called “phonetic alphabets”, spelling alphabets are not associated with phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that critical combinations of letters and numbers can be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of language barriers or the quality of the communication channel.

The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Code words

The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities. The qualifying feature was the likelihood of a code word being understood in the context of others. For example, football has a higher chance of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in extended communication.

The pronunciation of the code words varies according to the language habits of the speaker. To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO are available. However, there are still differences in pronunciation between the ICAO and other agencies, and the ICAO has conflicting Roman-alphabet and IPA transcriptions. Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Assuming that the transcriptions are not intended to be precise, only 11 of the 26—Bravo, Echo, Hotel, Juliet(t), Kilo, Mike, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Whiskey, and Zulu—are given English pronunciations by all these agencies, though not always the same English pronunciations.

Letters

Letter Code word Conflicting accounts of the pronunciation
U.S. Army
standard
ICAO and ITU
Roman standard
FAA
standards
ICAO
IPA standard
SIO
(France)
ICAO recording
(1955)
Consolidated transcription
A Alfa
ATIS: Alpha
AL fah AL FAH ALFAH or
AL-FAH
ˈælfɑ al fah [ˈælfʌ] /ˈælfɑː/ al-fah
B Bravo BRAH voh BRAH VOH
(1955: BRAH VOH)
BRAHVOH or
BRAH-VO
ˈbrɑːˈvo bra vo [brɑˈvoʊ] /ˌbrɑːˈv/ brah-voh
C Charlie CHAR lee CHAR LEE CHARLEE or
CHAR-LEE
ˈtʃɑːli  or
ˈʃɑːli
tchah li,
char li
[ˈtʃɑ˞li],
[ˈʃɑ˞li]
/ˈɑːrl/ char-lee or
/ˈʃɑːrl/ shar-lee
D Delta DEL tah DELL TAH DELLTAH or
DELL-TAH
ˈdeltɑ del tah [ˈdɛltʌ] /ˈdɛltɑː/ del-tah
E Echo EKK oh ECK OH ECKOH or
ECK-OH
ˈeko èk o [ˈɛkoʊ] /ˈɛk/
F Foxtrot FOKS trot FOKS TROT FOKSTROT or
FOKS-TROT
ˈfɔkstrɔt fox trott [ˈfɑkstrɑt] /ˈfɒkstrɒt/ foks-trot
G Golf Golf GOLF GOLF ɡʌlf [sic] golf [ˈɡʌl(f)] /ˈɡɒlf/ golf
H Hotel HO tell HOH TELL HOHTELL or
HOH-TELL
hoːˈtel ho tèll [hoʊˈtɛl] /hˈtɛl/ hoh-tel
I India IN dee ah IN DEE AH INDEE AH or
IN-DEE-AH
ˈindiˑɑ in di ah [ˈɪndi.ʌ] /ˈɪndɑː/ in-dee-ah
J Juliett
ATIS: Juliet
JEW lee ett JEW LEE ETT JEWLEE ETT or
JEW-LEE-ETT
ˈdʒuːliˑˈet djou li ètt [ˌdʒuliˈɛt] /ˈlɛt/ jew-lee-et or
/ˌlˈɛt/ jew-lee-et
K Kilo KEY loh KEY LOH KEYLOH or
KEY-LOH
ˈkiːlo ki lo [ˈkiloʊ] /ˈkl/ kee-loh
L Lima LEE mah LEE MAH LEEMAH or
LEE-MAH
ˈliːmɑ li mah [ˈlimʌ] /ˈlmɑː/ lee-mah
M Mike Mike MIKE MIKE mɑik maïk [ˈmʌɪk] /ˈmk/ myk
N November NOH vem ber NO VEM BER NOVEMBER or
NO-VEM-BER
noˈvembə no vèmm ber [noʊˈvɛmbɹ̩] /nˈvɛmbər/ noh-vem-bər[17]
O Oscar OSS car OSS CAH OSS-SCAR or
OSS-CAR
ˈɔskɑ oss kar [ˈɑskɹ̩] /ˈɒskɑː/ os-kah
P Papa PAH pah PAH PAH PAHPAH or
PAH-PAH
pəˈpɑ pah pah [pəˈpɑ] /pɑːˈpɑː/ pah-pah
Q Quebec keh BECK KEH BECK KEHBECK or
KWUH-BECK
keˈbek bèk [kɛˈbɛk] /kɛˈbɛk/ ke-bek
R Romeo ROW me oh ROW ME OH ROWME OH or
ROW-ME-OH
ˈroːmiˑo ro mi o [ˈɹoʊmi.oʊ] /ˈrm/ roh-mee-oh
S Sierra see AIR ah SEE AIR RAH SEEAIRAH or
SEE-AIR-AH
siˈerɑ si èr rah [siˈɛɾʌ] /sˈɛrɑː/ see-err-ah
T Tango TANG go TANG GO TANGGO or
TANG-GO
ˈtænɡo tang go [ˈtæŋɡoʊ] /ˈtæŋɡ/ tang-goh
U Uniform YOU nee form YOU NEE FORM or
OO NEE FORM
YOUNEE FORM or
YOU-NEE-FORM or
OO-NEE-FORM
ˈjuːnifɔːm  or
ˈuːnifɔrm
you ni form,
ou ni form
[ˈjunɪ̈fɔ˞m],
[ˈunɪ̈fɔ˞m]
/ˈjuːnfɔːrm/ ew-nee-form or
/ˈnfɔːrm/ oo-nee-form
V Victor VIK ter VIK TAH VIKTAH or
VIK-TAR
ˈviktɑ vik tar [ˈvɪktəɹ] /ˈvɪktɑː/ vik-tah
W Whiskey WISS key WISS KEY WISSKEY or
WISS-KEY
ˈwiski ouiss ki [ˈwɪski] /ˈwɪsk/ wis-kee
X X-ray
or Xray
EKS ray ECKS RAY ECKSRAY [sic] or
ECKS-RAY
ˈeksˈrei èkss [ˈɛksɹeɪ] /ˈɛksr/ eks-ray or
/ˌɛksˈr/ eks-ray
Y Yankee YANG kee YANG KEY YANGKEY [sic] or
YANG-KEY
ˈjænki yang ki [ˈjæŋki] /ˈjæŋk/ yang-kee
Z Zulu ZOO luu ZOO LOO ZOOLOO or
ZOO-LOO
ˈzuːluː zou lou [ˈzulu] /ˈzl/ zoo-loo
– (hyphen) Dash /ˈdæʃ/ dash

Digits

Digit Code word Pronunciation SIO Wikipedia transcription
0 Zero (FAA, USMC)
Nadazero (ITU, IMO)
ZE-RO (ICAO), ZE RO or ZEE-RO (FAA)
NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH (ITU, IMO)
zi ro /ˈzr/ zee-roh
/ˌnɑːˌdɑːˌzˈr/ nah-dah-zay-roh
1 One (FAA), Won (USMC)
Unaone (ITU, IMO)
WUN (ICAO, FAA)
OO-NAH-WUN (ITU, IMO)
ouann /ˈwʌn/ wun
/ˌˌnɑːˈwʌn/ oo-nah-wun
2 Two (FAA), Too (USMC)
Bissotwo (ITU, IMO)
TOO (ICAO, FAA)
BEES-SOH-TOO (ITU, IMO)
tou /ˈt/ too
/ˌbˌsˈt/ bee-soh-too
3 Three (FAA), Tree (USMC)
Terrathree (ITU, IMO)
TREE (ICAO, FAA)
TAY-RAH-TREE (ITU, IMO)
tri /ˈtr/ tree
/ˌtˌrɑːˈtr/ tay-rah-tree
4 Four (FAA), Fo-wer (USMC)
Kartefour (ITU, IMO)
FOW-ER (ICAO), FOW ER (FAA)
KAR-TAY-FOWER (ITU, IMO)
fo eur /ˈf.ər/ foh-ər
/ˌkɑːrˌtˈf.ər/ kar-tay-foh-ər
5 Five (FAA), Fife (USMC)
Pantafive (ITU, IMO)
FIFE (ICAO, FAA)
PAN-TAH-FIVE (ITU, IMO)
fa ïf /ˈff/ fyf[19]
/ˌpænˌtɑːˈfv/ pan-tah-fyv
6 Six (FAA, USMC)
Soxisix (ITU, IMO)
SIX (ICAO, FAA)
SOK-SEE-SIX (ITU, IMO)
siks /ˈsɪks/ siks
/ˌsɔːkˌsˈsɪks/ sok-see-siks
7 Seven (FAA, USMC)
Setteseven (ITU, IMO)
SEV-EN (ICAO), SEV EN (FAA)
SAY-TAY-SEVEN (ITU, IMO)
sèv n /ˈsɛvɛn/ sev-en
/ˌsˌtˈsɛvɛn/ say-tay-sev-en
8 Eight (FAA), Ate (USMC)
Oktoeight (ITU, IMO)
AIT (ICAO, FAA)
OK-TOH-AIT (ITU, IMO)
eït /ˈt/ ayt
/ˌɔːkˌtˈt/ ok-toh-ayt
9 Niner (FAA, USMC)
Nine or niner (ICAO)
Novenine (ITU, IMO)
NIN-ER (ICAO), NIN ER (FAA)
NO-VAY-NINER (ITU, IMO)
naï neu /ˈnnər/ ny-nər[20]
/ˌnɔːvˌˈnnər/ nov-ay-ny-nər
100 Hundred (ICAO) HUN-dred (ICAO) hun-dred /ˈhʌndrɛd/ hun-dred
1000 Thousand (ICAO) TOU-SAND (ICAO) taou zend /ˌtˈsænd/ tow-zend[21]
. (decimal point) Point (FAA)
Decimal (ITU, ICAO)
DAY-SEE-MAL (ITU) (ICAO) si mal /ˌdˌsˈmæl/ day-see-mal
. (full stop) Stop (ITU) STOP (ITU) /ˈstɒp/ stop

Pronunciation

Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. The ICAO gives a different pronunciation for IPA transcription and for respelling, and the FAA also gives different pronunciations depending on the publication consulted, the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (§ 4-2-7), the FAA Flight Services manual (§ 14.1.5), or the ATC manual (§ 2-4-16). ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The ICAO, NATO, and FAA use modifications of English numerals, with stress on one syllable, while the ITU and IMO compound pseudo-Latinate numerals with a slightly different set of modified English numerals, and with stress on each syllable. Numbers 10–99 are spelled out (that is, 17 is “1–7” and 60 is “6–0”), while for hundreds and thousands the English words hundred and thousand are used.

The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English – being pronounced tree, fower, fife, and niner. The digit 3 is specified as tree so that it is not pronounced sri; the long pronunciation of 4 (still found in some English dialects) keeps it somewhat distinct from for; 5 is pronounced with a second “f” because the normal pronunciation with a “v” is easily confused with “fire” (a command to shoot); and 9 has an extra syllable to keep it distinct from German nein ‘no’.

Only the ICAO prescribes pronunciation with the IPA, and then only for letters. Several of the pronunciations indicated are slightly modified from their normal English pronunciations: /ˈælfɑ, ˈbrɑːˈvo, ˈʃɑːli, ˈdeltɑ, ˈfɔkstrɔt, ɡʌlf, ˈliːmɑ, ˈɔskɑ, siˈerɑ, ˈtænɡo, ˈuːnifɔrm, ˈviktɑ, ˈjænki/, partially due to the substitution of final schwas with the ah vowel; in addition, the intended distinction between the short vowels /o ɑ ɔ/ and the long vowels /oː ɑː ɔː/ is obscure, and has been ignored in the consolidated transcription above. Both the IPA and respelled pronunciations were developed by the ICAO before 1956 with advice from the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom, so the pronunciations of both General American English and British Received Pronunciation are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents. The respelled version is usually at least consistent with a rhotic accent (‘r’ pronounced), as in CHAR LEE, SHAR LEE, NO VEM BER, YOU NEE FORM, and OO NEE FORM, whereas the IPA version usually specifies a non-rhotic accent (‘r’ pronounced only before a vowel), as in ˈtʃɑːli, ˈʃɑːli, noˈvembə, and ˈjuːnifɔːm. Exceptions are OSS CAH, VIK TAH and ˈuːnifɔrm. The IPA form of Golf implies it is pronounced gulf, which is not either General American English or British Received Pronunciation. Different agencies assign different stress patterns to Bravo, Hotel, Juliett, November, Papa, X-ray; the ICAO has different stresses for Bravo, Juliett, X-ray in its respelled and IPA transcriptions. The mid back [ɔ] vowel transcribed in Oscar and Foxtrot is actually a low vowel in both Received British and General American, and has been interpreted as such above. Furthermore, the pronunciation prescribed for “whiskey” has no initial [h], although some speakers in both General American and RP pronounce an [h] (or [ʍ]) here, and an initial [h] (or [ʍ]) is categorical in Scotland and Ireland.

Usage

A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters sound similar, for instance “n” and “m” or “f” and “s”; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present. For instance the message “proceed to map grid DH98” could be transmitted as “proceed to map grid Delta-Hotel-Niner-Ait”. Using “Delta” instead of “D” avoids confusion between “DH98” and “BH98” or “TH98”. The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion.

In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone (to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codes), although ad hoc coding is often used in that instance. It has been used often by information technology workers to communicate serial/reference codes (which are often very long) or other specialised information by voice. Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate Passenger Name Records (PNRs) internally, and in some cases, with customers. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information.

Several letter codes and abbreviations using the spelling alphabet have become well-known, such as Bravo Zulu (letter code BZ) for “well done”, Checkpoint Charlie (Checkpoint C) in Berlin, and Zulu Time for Greenwich Mean Time or Coordinated Universal Time. During the Vietnam War, the The U.S. government referred to the Viet Cong guerrillas and the group itself as VC, or Victor Charlie; the name “Charlie” became synonymous with this force.

USNO NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

The following Global Positioning System (GPS) information is obtained from the 1994 Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP), prepared jointly by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Transportation (DoT) and other sources such as conferences, meetings and seminars.


GPS CAPABILITIES

The GPS is a DoD developed, worldwide, satellite-based radionavigation system that will be the DoD’s primary radionavigation system well into the next century. The constellation consists of 24 operational satellites. The U.S. Air Force Space Command (AFSC) formally declared the GPS satellite constellation as having met the requirement for Full Operational Capability (FOC) as of April 27, 1995. Requirements include 24 operational satellites (Block II/IIA) functioning in their assigned orbits and successful testing completed for operational military functionality.

Prior to FOC an Initial Operational Capability (IOC) was declared on December 8, 1993 when 24 GPS satellites (Block I and Block II/IIA) were operating in their assigned orbits, available for navigation use and providing the Standard Positioning Service (SPS) levels specified below.

GPS provides two levels of service, Standard Positioning Service and the Precise Positioning Service .

The Standard Positioning Service (SPS) is a positioning and timing service which will be available to all GPS users on a continuous, worldwide basis with no direct charge. SPS will be provided on the GPS L1 frequency which contains a coarse acquisition (C/A) code and a navigation data message. SPS provides a predictable positioning accuracy of 100 meters (95 percent) horizontally and 156 meters (95 percent) vertically and time transfer accuracy to UTC within 340 nanoseconds (95 percent).The Precise Positioning Service (PPS) is a highly accurate military positioning, velocity and timing service which will be available on a continuous, worldwide basis to users authorized by the U.S. P(Y) code capable military user equipment provides a predictable positioning accuracy of at least 22 meters (95 percent) horizontally and 27.7 meters vertically and time transfer accuracy to UTC within 200 nanoseconds (95 percent). PPS will be the data transmitted on the GPS L1 and L2 frequencies. PPS was designed primarily for U.S. military use. It will be denied to unauthorized users by the use of cryptography. PPS will be made available to U.S. and military and U.S. Federal Government users. Limited, non-Federal Government, civil use of PPS, both domestic and foreign, will be considered upon request and authorized on a case-by-case basis, provided:

  • It is in the U.S. national interest to do so.
  • Specific GPS security requirements can be met by the applicant.
  • A reasonable alternative to the use of PPS is not available.

For questions regarding GPS policy, the user is advised to refer to the regularly appearing FRP. The FRP is published every 2 years and is available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. The latest report number is DOT-VNTSC-RSPA-95-1/DOD-4650.5 for report date 1994.


GPS SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS

The satellites transmit on two L-band frequencies: L1 = 1575.42 MHz and L2 = 1227.6 MHz. Three pseudo-random noise (PRN) ranging codes are in use.

  • The coarse/acquisition (C/A) code has a 1.023 MHz chip rate, a period of 1 millisecond (ms) and is used primarily to acquire the P-code.
  • The precision (P) code has a 10.23 MHz rate, a period of 7 days and is the principal navigation ranging code.
  • The Y-code is used in place of the P-code whenever the anti-spoofing (A-S) mode of operation is activated.

The C/A code is available on the L1 frequency and the P-code is available on both L1 and L2. The various satellites all transmit on the same frequencies, L1 and L2, but with individual code assignments.

Due to the spread spectrum characteristic of the signals, the system provides a large margin of resistance to interference. Each satellite transmits a navigation message containing its orbital elements, clock behavior, system time and status messages. In addition, an almanac is also provided which gives the approximate data for each active satellite. This allows the user set to find all satellites once the first has been acquired.


SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY, ANTI-SPOOFING

Selective Availability (SA), the denial of full accuracy, is accomplished by manipulating navigation message orbit data (epsilon) and/or satellite clock frequency (dither). Anti-spoofing (A-S)guards against fake transmissions of satellite data by encrypting the P-code to form the Y-code.

SA will be implemented on Block II at the SPS levels, as soon as each Block II satellite is operational. SA was activated July 4, 1991 at 0400 UT (ref: Notice Advisory to NAVSTAR Users 121-92282 DTG 011354Z JUL 91 ). A-S was exercised intermittently through 1993 and implemented on January 31, 1994 (ref: Notice Advisory to NAVSTAR Users 050-94042, DTG 112054Z FEB 94).


GPS SYSTEM SEGMENTS

The GPS consists of three major segments: SPACE, CONTROL and USER.

The SPACE segment consists of 24 operational satellites in six orbital planes (four satellites in each plane). The satellites operate in circular 20,200 km (10,900 nm) orbits at an inclination angle of 55 degrees and with a 12-hour period. The position is therefore the same at the same sidereal time each day, i.e. the satellites appear 4 minutes earlier each day.

The CONTROL segment consists of five Monitor Stations (Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, Colorado Springs), three Ground Antennas, (Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, Kwajalein), and a Master Control Station (MCS) located at Schriever AFB in Colorado. The monitor stations passively track all satellites in view, accumulating ranging data. This information is processed at the MCS to determine satellite orbits and to update each satellite’s navigation message. Updated information is transmitted to each satellite via the Ground Antennas.

The USER segment consists of antennas and receiver-processors that provide positioning, velocity, and precise timing to the user.


GPS SYSTEM TIME

GPS system time is given by its Composite Clock (CC). The CC or “paper” clock consists of all operational Monitor Station and satellite frequency standards. GPS system time, in turn, is referenced to the Master Clock (MC) at the USNO and steered to UTC(USNO) from which system time will not deviate by more than one microsecond. The exact difference is contained in the navigation message in the form of two constants, A0 and A1, giving the time difference and rate of system time against UTC(USNO,MC). UTC(USNO) itself is kept very close to the international benchmark UTC as maintained by the BIPM, and the exact difference, USNO vs. BIPM is available in near real time.

The latest individual satellite measurements are updated daily. (Data format explanation.)

The best current measure of the difference, UTC(USNO MC) – GPS is based on filtered and smoothed data over the past two days.


GPS TIME TRANSFER

GPS is at the present time the most competent system for time transfer , the distribution of Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI). The system uses time of arrival (TOA) measurements for the determination of user position. A precisely timed clock is not essential for the user because time is obtained in addition to position by the measurement of TOA of FOUR satellites simultaneously in view. If altitude is known (i.e. for a surface user), then THREE satellites are sufficient. If time is being kept by a stable clock (say, since the last complete coverage), then TWO satellites in view are sufficient for a fix at known altitude. If the user is, in addition, stationary or has a known speed then, in principle, the position can be obtained by the observation of a complete pass of a SINGLE satellite. This could be called the “transit” mode, because the old TRANSIT system uses this method. In the case of GPS, however, the apparent motion of the satellite is much slower, requiring much more stability of the user clock.

Everything You Need to Know About Scanners and the Law

Radio scanners are used to find and translate frequencies that are being transmitted. The air is filled with radio signals of all kinds and a scanner is capable of tuning into them. Even the common radios that are installed in vehicles have a scanner. However, more advanced scanners exist that can access channels outside of the traditional news and radio stations.

This guide will only discuss and refer to the advanced models that are used for the purpose of listening to local emergency services, military, and government transmissions. The legality of tuning into these frequencies has long been a topic of confusion. Before discussing the legal issues associated with the use of scanners, it is important to first understand their history and how they work.

History of Radio Scanners

The very first scanners were controlled with crystals. Each frequency required one crystal so it got very expensive trying to tune into more than one channel. The scanners during this time only had around eight to twenty channels. It wasn’t until 1980 that RadioShack created a scanner with 300 channels and 10 scan banks. A scan bank has a range of frequencies within it. For example, local music and news stations are on one scan bank, while the emergency service transmissions are on a different scan bank.

How Radio Scanners Work

Radio scanners use a tuner that receives signal through antennas. The antennas may be internal, external, or even removable. The tuner directs which frequencies the scanner is picking up through the antenna. Once a clear frequency is detected, the signal is sent to the demodulator to be decoded. Those codes are then sent through the amplifier which converts them into sounds that the speakers can project.

The tuner can find the frequencies by scanning the radio waves in the area. Users can manually try to find a channel or the device can automatically scan through frequencies itself. It will stop and play the first complete frequency it finds. Some scanners also come with the preprogrammed ability to scan banks that certain agencies use.

The Legalities of Radio Scanners

The legality of using radio scanners varies. Certain frequencies have a much higher risk of running into legal problems than others do and sometimes there are gray areas within the law. It is very important to understand that every state has different laws regarding radio scanners.

The main concern with radio scanners is that they have the ability to pick up on more transmissions than people realize. Below are various frequencies that can be tuned into and how great the risk is to listen into them.

Transmission

Risk

Cell Phones Highly illegal to listen to any cell phone conversations
Civilian Aircraft Lower risk because no confidential information is given over civilian channels
Coast Guard Listening into any military channel is a high risk because confidential information may be exchanged; military information that is confidential is not voiced over the radio unless it is coded; it is still a risk to listen in
Emergency Medical Services Medium risk to listen into EMS calls; legal issues may arise if a patient’s confidential information is given; FCC regulations prohibit this
FBI Listening to anything from the Federal Bureau of Investigation is an extremely high risk and could easily result in legal action; even non confidential information should not be listened to
Fire Department Medium risk for the same reasons that it is for EMS; fire related calls are okay to be listened into, but most fire departments respond to the same medical calls that EMS does; patient confidentiality is at risk
Ham Radio The ham radio channels are public; okay to listen to
Law Enforcement High risk of listening to calls between dispatch and law enforcement personnel; in most states, it is generally not illegal; there are many stipulations involved that can result in legal discipline
Local Commercial Companies Plumbing and construction companies may use a two-way radio system; not illegal to listen into those frequencies as long as the information is not abused
Marine Civilian boaters often use radios to communicate; low risk of listening to the channel; if boaters make a call to the Coast Guard, it could become a risk
Military Aircraft Listening to military transmissions is a risk especially if real missions or training missions are taking place
News Media Vans and Helicopters Low risk to listen to media vans and helicopters; risk of being sued if news information they gathered is released without their permission
Officials at Sporting Events No risk of listening to pit crews and the other sports members so long as the information is not used maliciously
Local, State, and Federal Agencies Any government agencies are a high risk to listen to; misuse of any information will result in legal action whether or not it was illegal to use the scanner
Security Officers Security officers guarding regular business are not a risk to listen to; if guarding hidden or government facilities, it is a very high risk to listen to them; buildings that are hidden or important are heavily guarded for a reason

Every state has different laws pertaining to each type of transmission channel. Never tune into anything that is not public without checking the local laws first.

Illegal Uses of Radio Scanners

When it comes to scanners and their legality, there are a lot of gray areas. However, there are certain laws that are nationwide. These are the illegal uses of radio scanners.

1. Listening into Cell Phone Calls

Older cell phones used analog FM frequencies that could be picked up by scanners if the scanner was modified to do so. In 1994, the FCC ruled that all scanners sold within the U.S. had to be “cell blocked.” This means that the manufacturer had to build the radio scanners with a block against scanning any cellular frequencies. This is obsolete now because new cellphones use digital signals instead of analog. There is no way for scanners to pick up on their frequencies without significant modification.

2. Intercepting Scrambled Communications

Some agencies scramble their transmissions so that they cannot be listened to. This is done to prohibit the public from listening to their channel. If the frequency is scrambled, it is illegal to listen to it. Some scanners are sold with trunking capabilities which allow them to unscramble transmissions. Buying, using, and selling scanners with the trunking feature is illegal.

3. Importing Scanners with Illegal Features

Purchasing radio scanners from overseas that have the ability to capture cell phone signals or to unscramble frequencies is illegal.

4. Modifying Radio Scanners

Modifying scanners to receive cell phone signals or encrypted frequencies is illegal.

5. Using Information for Personal Gain

Any time information is used to manipulate someone, defame them, or gain an advantage over them, it is illegal.

6. Using the Information to Commit a Crime

Listening in to channels to gain information which will be used for criminal acts of any kind is illegal. Giving others the information so that they can commit a crime is also illegal.

Shopping for Scanners on eBay

Advanced radio scanners are rarely sold in brick and mortar stores unless they are at a specialty radio communications store. Unfortunately, they are not very common. Many people prefer to just shop online because it eliminates the travel time and they can get the opinions of others on whether the scanner is good quality.

Legal radio scanners of all kinds can be found easily on eBay. There are thousands of products and accessories that shoppers can browse through. This allows buyers to compare prices, features, and the performance of the scanners. By shopping online, people can look up product reviews and make sure that past buyers have been satisfied with the scanners.

How to Purchase Radio Scanners on eBay

eBay has designed the site to make the shopping process simple and organized. To begin, go to the eBay website and click on the All Categoriestab. Find the Consumer Electronics section and click on Radio Communication. Next, select Scanners. This will list all of the radio scanners that are for sale, but this list can be narrowed down. You can choose Portable / Handheld, Base Station, or Mobile / In – Vehicle scanners. Keep in mind that in-vehicle scanners are illegal in many states.

Now you can choose the brands you are interested in, enter your price range, and select how much channel memory you would like. Narrowing down these preferences helps speed up the process of finding the perfect scanner. Once you choose some scanners that you are interested in, look to see if they have an available warranty, whether the warranty is free or entails an extra charge, how much the shipping is, and lastly, see what kind of feedback the seller is getting from past customers.

Conclusion

People enjoy scanners because it can be exciting and fascinating to listen in to agency and civilian transmissions. However, it is important to check on local laws before tuning in to any at-risk frequencies. In addition, people also have to be careful what they reveal about what they heard. They could unintentionally give away information that leads to a violation of privacy or a criminal act. Radio scanners should be used and enjoyed as long as it is in a legal and safe way. By using the information provided, people can find and purchase a radio scanner that is satisfactory as well as legal.

Wouxun KG-UV9D Multi-Band Two Way Radio

 

 

Experience Multi-Band excitement with the Wouxun KG-UV9D! This multi-modulation two way radio combines dual band transmission, 7 band reception and multiple feature options for multi-functional operation you won’t get with a typical dual band handheld radio!

The KG-UV9D transmits on 4 watts UHF and 5 watts VHF with multiple power settings. It features an impressive 999 programmable memory channels with QT/DQT encoding and decoding, DTMF encode/decode and 25KHz/12.5KHz wide/narrow bandwidth selection.

Dual Band Transmission

  • 144-148MHz VHF (FM TX)
  • 420-450MHz UHF (FM TX)

7 Band Reception

  • 76-108MHz (FM Radio)
  • 108-136MHz (AM RX)
  • 136-180MHz (FM RX)
  • 230-250MHz (FM RX)
  • 350-400MHz (FM RX)
  • 400-512MHz (FM RX)
  • 700-985MHz (FM RX)

The KG-UV9D operates on multiple levels to maximize the experience! It has true dual reception, so you can receive two signals on the same or different bands simultaneously. You can even transmit on one band while you receive on the other at the same time!

But its multi-function operation doesn’t end there. The KG-UV9D has multiple scan capabilites, as well. Priority scan, channel group scan, these are just a given. CTCSS/DCS scanning is a plus. Want a scan feature that’s really exciting? With it’s dual receive, the KG-UV9D can scan two bands at the same time. Now, that’s multi-functional!

Of course, we can’t forget the multi-display. First introduced with the popular KG-UV8D, the large, color screen is also a prime feature of the KG-UV9D, and with some notable improvements. Of course, there is still plenty of room to display all the information needed to operate a multi-function radio on both bands at the same time. Now the display is also adjustable, with five levels of brightness. Customize the settings for your viewing comfort while conserving battery power as needed. With the KG-UV9D in your hand, you are in control!

Speaking of control, check out Lock Mode. You can choose to lock only the keypad, lock the keypad and the encoders, lock the keypad and the PTT, or lock it all. It’s no longer all or nothing. Multiple lock options let you decide how your radio can be accessed, keeping you in control.

The KG-UV9D is also loaded with other features to make it truly multi-faceted! Three programmable side keys, sub-frequency transmission setting, Channel Name edit and display, Caller ID display, 76-108Mhz FM radio, SOS function, remote alarm, single-tone pulse frequency, reverse frequency, low voltage voice prompt, VOX (Voice Operated Transmit) for hands-free operation and a high illumination flashlight are all part of the package. And yes, like the 8D, the KG-UV9D has a stopwatch!

The Wouxun KG-UV9D comes with a 7.4v 2000mAh (14.8Wh) Li-Ion battery pack, belt clip, high gain antenna, stubby antenna, wrist strap, desktop charger, AC cord, owner’s manual and a one year manufacturer warranty from Wouxun.

 

 

Wouxun KG-UV9D Features

ACMA Emission Designators – Mobile Services

Information about Emission Designators can be found at Wikipedia.

The ACMA also publishes a document entitled “Emission characteristics of radio transmissions” which goes into further detail about the nature of the abbreviation.

 


The Break Down

9M40W7WEC can be broken down like this:

9 <- bandwidth: a whole number in Mhz, ie. 9MHz
M <- “MHz”
40 <- the next 2 least significant bandwidth digits, ie 0.40Mhz
W <- two or more modulation types from the set of {AM, FM, PM}
7 <- two or more digital channels
W <- “type info”, eg. F=TV video, but in this specific case W=”combination of other information types”.
E <- “detail of signals” E=”Multi-condition code in which each condition represents a signal element (of one or more bits)”
C <- “nature of multiplexing” C=”Code-division” F=”Frequency-division multiplex” T=”Time-division multiplex” W=”Combination of frequency-division multiplex and time-division multiplex”

The last two symbols are optional, their absence should be indicated by a dash (-) where each symbol would otherwise appear.


Telstra

NextG 850MHz

    • 9M40W7WEC (9.4Mhz bandwidth)
    • 9M90G7WEC (9.9Mhz bandwidth)
    • 4M90G7WEC (4.9Mhz bandwidth)

4G 1800MHz

    • *W7DEW
      Note1: The bandwidth designator varies eg. 9M90W7DEW (9.9Mhz bandwidth 4G).
      Note 2: Dependent on location, Telstra is rolling out 10, 15 & 20Mhz bandwidth carriers)

4G 2100MHz

    • tba – Service unconfirmed
      Note: The Telstra Sierra 320U, with latest firmware supports 2100Mhz

Optus

GSM 900MHz

    • 8M40G7E (8.4Mhz B/W)
      The Optus GSM 900 band may be used for 900mhz 3G by ‘re-farming’ the 900 2G band for both 2G and 3G in some capital city locations – More Information

3G 900MHz

    • 3M84G7W (3.84Mhz B/W)
    • dual carrier assignments as 9M86G7W (particularly in the 2100 band)

4G 1800MHz

    • 10M0W7D– (10MHz B/W)
      Note: Optus does not have 1800 spectrum in every state

4G 2300MHz

    • 20M0W7W– (to be confirmed)
      Note 1: Optus are understood to be trialling 2300 4G in Canberra
      Note 2: At this time Optus does not appear to have a suitable 4G device for 2300MHz

Australian Amateur Callsigns

Australian Amateur Callsigns

Australian amateur callsigns normally commence with VK followed by one digit then either two or three letters. VI or AX may be temporarily allocated for special events.

VK0 — Australian Antarctica, Heard Island, Macquarie Island
VK1 — Australian National Capital – Canberra
VK2 –New South Wales
VK3 –Victoria
VK4 –Queensland
VK5 –South Australia
VK6 –Western Australia
VK7 –Tasmania
VK8 –Northern Territory
VK9C –Cocos-Keeling Island
VK9L –Lord Howe Island
VK9M –Mellish Reef
VK9N –Norfolk Island
VK9W — Willis Island
VK9X –Christmas Island

All two letter suffix callsigns, except WI, indicate an Advanced licence – All four letter suffixes indicate the new Foundation licence.